Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj <p>The BSUJ is a peer-reviewed, open-access, undergraduate journal focused in the behavioural sciences. Our mission reflects the learning of scientific principles, research integrity, intersectional analysis, publishing process, and constructive collaboration at foundational levels.</p> <p>Submissions to the BSUJ focus on research topics in the behavioural sciences (e.g., psychology, sociology, anthropology, health sciences, nursing, gender studies, social work, etc.).</p> <p>ISSN 2562-4687</p> en-US <div> <p><strong>Note:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The author is prepared to hold their copyright under Creative Commons, meaning the author retains copyright and agrees to open sharing of their manuscript for educational purposes. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before, during, or after the publication process with BSUJ, as it can lead to productive exchanges, reviews, and citations of published work. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode</span></p> <p> </p> </div> ssome671@mtroyal.ca (Shayla-Rose Somers) mrujs@mtroyal.ca (MRU Journal System Support) Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 -0600 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Acknowledgements https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/590 <p>Acknowledgements of contributors to the Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal Volume 3, Issue 1.</p> Shayla-Rose Somers Copyright (c) 2021 Shayla-Rose Somers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/590 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0700 On the Cover: 'Alternate Perceptions' https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/582 <p>The artist,&nbsp;<span class="il">Famira</span>&nbsp;Racy, is an inner experiences researcher and I/O psychology specialist from Calgary, Alberta, Canada.&nbsp;<span class="il">Famira</span>'s philosophy<span style="color: #ff0000;">&nbsp;</span>of art is rooted in the malleability&nbsp;and varieties of experience, and the sublime notions of existence and beauty in both creation and destruction. In this issue's&nbsp;<span class="il">cover</span>&nbsp;piece, 'Alternate Perceptions<span style="color: #ff0000;">'</span>&nbsp;she reflects here on commonly constructed juxtapositions of rumination and mindfulness in cognition.<span class="im"><br><br>To produce this image,&nbsp;<span class="il">Famira</span>&nbsp;photographed a simple backyard in Calgary, then enhanced contrast and saturation between naturally occuring patterns of light, colour, and shapes. What emerged was a representation of an experience that can be both a juxtaposition of two processes (e.g., light/dark, simple/complex), as well as a coming together of these positions to create a new perspective.<br><br>Applying this perspective shift to cognitive processes such as mindfulness and rumination for example, one can ask not only what mindfulness can do for rumination, but also what mindfulness of one's rumination can come to 'say' about one's cognitions and behaviours in a bigger picture -- a meta-awareness of sorts.</span></p> <p><span class="im">- Famira Racy</span></p> Famira Racy Copyright (c) 2020 Famira Racy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/582 Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0700 The Effects of Mindfulness on Self-Rumination, Self-Reflection, and Depressive Symptoms: A Research Proposal https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/399 <p>The investigation of mindfulness has increased significantly over the past decade regarding its efficacy as a clinical tool, particularly in the treatment of depression. Mindfulness is often conceptualized as a mental state characterized by present-moment, non-judgmental attention and awareness. Past researchers have suggested that mindfulness is linked to reduction of self-rumination (i.e. maladaptive self-focused attention to one’s self-worth) through promotion of concrete focus and inhibition of automatic elaboration of intrusive thoughts. Moreover, mindfulness also promotes low-level construal thinking (i.e. concrete thinking) which competes against high-level construal thinking (i.e. abstract thinking). Researchers have proposed that self-rumination involves high-level construal of the self and others, which could increase the likelihood of experiencing negative moods. On the other hand, mindfulness may potentially promote self-reflection (i.e. adaptive self-focused attention to the self) while inhibiting self-rumination. The purpose of this paper is to propose a research idea that will explore the relationship between mindfulness, self-rumination, self-reflection, and depressive symptoms (i.e., low mood, anhedonia or ability to feel pleasure, and changes in sleep). The findings of the proposed research may have significant implications for treatment of depressive symptoms and for promotion of positive outcomes such as mitigation of self-rumination and enhancement of self-reflective processes through potential effects of mindfulness.</p> Mabel Yu Copyright (c) 2017 Mabel Yu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/399 Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 -0600 Inner Speech Modification and Young Offender Re-offence: Literature Review and Implications https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/367 <p>Inner speech is the voice in our heads that serves a variety of functions, and impacts individuals’ thoughts and behaviours. It is thought that young offenders have misguiding inner voices, and there is hope that professionals can change this through inner speech modification. During treatment, practitioners attempt to teach young offenders to use skills and tools. Ideally, this will reduce recidivism rates and allow these youth to become contributing members of society. In this literature review, the relationship between inner speech and young offender reoffence is examined. The purpose of this research is to bridge literature on inner speech, cognitive behavioural therapy, and young offender research to provide a source of suggestions for reducing delinquent behaviours. I advocate for inner speech modification programs in young offender rehabilitation because the research presented in this review supports the use of inner<br />speech in behaviour modification. I argue that the programs designed for young offenders need continued flexibility, and that there needs to be an increase in program availability for young offenders, especially ones involving inner speech modification. I also suggest that researchers should examine more preventative, earlier intervention programs, and investigate the relationships between inner speech and language deficiencies in young offenders.</p> Jessica Elsom Copyright (c) 2018 Jessica Elsom https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/367 Wed, 31 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0600 The Mere Presence of a Cell Phone: Effects on Academic Ability https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/492 <p>Prior research has suggested that cell phone use in the classroom and during learning-related tasks is detrimental to academic performance. Recently, the mere presence of a cell phone has been found to negatively affect relationships and to impair performance on learning and cognitive tasks. This study explored whether the presence (visibility without use) of a cell phone negatively impacts one’s performance on tests measuring preexisting academic ability. The study evaluated 45 participants; some were enrolled in an introductory psychology course, and others were members of the public. Three subtests from the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-4) were completed: spelling, sentence comprehension, and mathematics. During testing, half of the participants had cell phones, and the other half did not. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference between the cell phone-present and cell phone-absent group on the sentence comprehension (p=.52), spelling (p=.07), and mathematics subtest (p=.11). Unexpectedly, a non-significant trend was observed in the opposite direction; that is, the cell phone-present group outperformed the cell phone-absent group on all subtests. Therefore, the original hypothesis suggesting that the cell phone-present group would be significantly poorer at demonstrating preexisting skills on tests of academic ability in comparison to the cell phone-present group was not supported.</p> Vanessa C. Boila, Tru E. Kwong, Jaimey E. Hintz Copyright (c) 2020 Vanessa C. Boila, Tru E. Kwong, Jaimey E. Hintz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/492 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Stress in Post-Secondary: Toward an Understanding of Test-Anxiety, Cognitive Performance, and Brief Mindfulness Meditation https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/500 <p>Premised on cultivating present-moment awareness, mindfulness meditation (MM) programs have been shown to significantly reduce state-anxiety and improve cognitive performance in post-secondary students. With increasing popularity, briefer MM formats have been introduced to post-secondary institutions to combat the rising prevalence of student test-anxiety. However, research examining the efficacy of brief MM on a state-level test-anxiety response and its ability to improve cognitive performance in a testing situation is sparse. The present study examined the immediate effects of brief MM on state test-anxiety and cognitive performance. A sample of 50 undergraduate college students (<em>N </em>= 50) were randomly assigned to a brief MM or a control activity. In the current study, it was hypothesized that there would be lower state test-anxiety levels and higher cognitive performance in the brief MM group than the control group. Results revealed that the brief MM group had greater state test-anxiety reduction than the control group at post-treatment. Consistent with previous work, brief MM, however, did not promote any specific short-term benefits for cognitive performance. Our findings, however, converge with past research to suggest that brief MM may produce immediate, short-term state test-anxiety relief. Immediate anxiety relief may be beneficial for students during stressful academic periods.</p> Raychel Colangelo, Karyn Audet Copyright (c) 2020 Raychel Colangelo, Karyn Audet https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/500 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Raising the Curtain on Drama Therapy: Healing Benefits for Youth and Older Adults https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/494 <p>The vast majority of people around the world have been exposed to dramatic arts in some way, shape, or form, but only recently has drama therapy been accepted as a therapeutic treatment for individuals across the lifespan. This paper provides a general introduction to drama therapy and some of the techniques (e.g., role playing and storytelling) employed in its delivery and hands-on practice. In addition, the paper explores how drama therapy has been used to treat young people (approximately 10-17 years old) who have autism and/or social, emotional, and behavioural difficulties, and older adults (approximately 60-90 years old) who are experiencing normative or non-normative aging. The findings presented here suggest drama therapy may be an efficacious, healing treatment for a myriad of age groups. For instance, its positive effects on individuals with dementia have been observed, and an assortment of intra- and inter-personal improvements have been documented in youth. Considering drama therapy is still a growing field, less drama therapy research exists in comparison to its alternative treatments.</p> Vanessa Boila, Lanette Klettke, Stephanie Quong, Ciara Gerlitz Copyright (c) 2020 Vanessa Boila, Lanette Klettke, Stephanie Quong, Ciara Gerlitz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://mrujs.mtroyal.ca/index.php/bsuj/article/view/494 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 -0700