‘Blood, it’s in you to be Governed'

Alex Christison

Abstract


The author of this paper investigates how blood has been constructed as a gendered and heteronormative cultural product, explored through the use of critical analysis of historical and contemporary uses of blood. Heteronormativity and the fallacy of discrete sexes are then defined and explored to give context to the argument. It is found that through gendering under the two-sex model of opposing male and female sexes, blood is heteronormative. A case study of Canadian Blood Services was used to show how governance is enacted based upon the limitation of a heteronormative construction. This argument is bolstered in a theoretical discussion of the nation-state and the creation of the archetypical citizen, part of which is a compulsory heterosexuality.


Keywords


heteronormativity; blood; critical analysis; governance; Canadian Blood Services; humoral medicine; gender; sexuality; one-sex model; two-sex model

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alexander, J. 1994. Not Just (Any) Body Can be a Citizen: The politics of Law, Sexuality and Postcoloniality in Trinidad and Tobago and the Bahamas. Feminist Review 48:5-23.

Burrows, A. & Johnson, S. 2005. Girls’ Experiences of Menarche and Menstruation. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 23(3):235-249.

Butler, J. 1988. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theater Journal 40(4):519-531.

Butler, J. 2004. Undoing Gender. Routledge.

Canadian Blood Services (CBS). 2013. Chronology of Events Related to MSM Policy. Retrieved from http://www.blood.ca/centreapps/internet/uw_v502_mainengine.nsf/page/Chronolog y-of-events-related-to-the-MSM-Policy?OpenDocument

Canadian Blood Services. 2009. Annual Report: Ten Years Later. Retrieved from http://www.blood.ca/CentreApps/Internet/UW_V502_MainEngine.nsf/resources/Annual+Reports/$file/CBS-Annual-Report-2008-2009-en.pdf

Canadian Blood Services. 2012. Got a Free Hour? What Would You Do? Retrieved from http://www.blood.ca/centreapps/internet/uw_v502_mainengine.nsf/web/10BD1F35345EB97685257A1A004ABAB6?OpenDocument

CBC News. 2010. Gay Ont. Man Loses Blood Donation Negligence Suit Donor Falsely Denied that he had had Sex with Another Man. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/n ews/canada/story/2010/09/09/ontario-court-blood-kyle-freemen-suit-negligent.html

Chauncey, G. Jr. 1983. From Sexual Inversion to Homosexuality: Medicine and the Changing Conception of Female Deviance. Salmugundi 58:114-146.

End the Ban (ETB). 2010. Section 3-6. Retrieved from http://endtheban.cfs-fcee.ca/en/section/3

Feo Rodrigues, I. P. B. 2005. Our Ancestors Came From Many Bloods: Gendered Narrations of a Hybrid Nation. Revue Lusotopie XII 1(2):217-232.

Foucault, M. 1978. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction. Vol. 1. New York: Vintage Books.

Foucault, M. 1997. The Politics of Truth. United States: Autonomedia.

Frost, L. 2005. Theorizing the Young Woman in the Body. Body & Society 11:63-85.

Giddens, A. 1987. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford University Press: Stranfor California

Hayden, C.P., 1995. Gender, Genetics, and Generation: Reformulating Biology in Lesbian Kinship. Cultural Anthropology 10(1):41-63.

Hird, M. J. 2000. Gender’s Nature: Intersexuality, Transexualism and the ‘Sex’/’Gender’ Binary. Feminist Theory 1:347-364.

Hird, M. J. 2004. Sex, Gender, and Science. New York, NY: Palgrave-MacMillian.

Jones, V. 1990. Women in the Eighteenth Century. London, England: Routledge.

Lake, R. 2010. MSM Blood Donation Ban: (In)equality, Gay Rights and Discrimination Under the Charter. Appeal 15:136-149.

Laqueur, T. W. 1990. Making Sex, Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Harvard University Press.

Mackie, V. 2001. The Trans-sexual Citizen: Queering Sameness and Difference. Australian Feminist Studies 16(35):185-192.

Muscio, I. 2004. Blood and Cunts. In. A. Prince & S. Silva-Wayne (Eds.) Feminisms and Womanisms: a Woman’s Studies Reader (pp. 253-258). Toronto, ON: Women’s Press.

Oinas, E. 1998. Medicalisation by Whom? Accounts of Menstruation Conveyed by Young Women and Medical Experts in Medical Advisory Columns. Sociology of Health & Illness 20(1):52-70.

Ontario Supreme Court of Justice 2006. COURT FILE NO.: 02-CV-20980. Retrieved from http://www.canlii.org/en/on/onsc/doc/2006/2006canlii12308/2006canlii12308.pdf

Porter, R. 1998. First ed. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind, a Medical History of Humanity. New York, N.Y: W. W. Norton & Company.

Pratt, M. 1998. The Defence of the Straight State: Heteronormality, AIDS in France, and the Space of the Nation. French Cultural Studies 10:263-280.

Rich, A. 1996. Eds. Compulsory Heterosexuality. In S. Jackson & S. Scott, Feminism and Sexuality: A Reader (pp. 130-141). New York: Columbia University Press.

Reed, K. 2009. ‘It’s them faulty genes again’: Women, Men and the Gendered Nature of Genetic Responsibility in Prenatal Blood Screening. Sociology of Health & Illness 31(3):343-359

Reed, T., P. 2004. The Medieval Review. [Review of the book The Curse of Eve, the Wound of the Hero: Blood, Gender, and Medieval Literature, by P. McCracken] The Medieval Review 37:01.

Sanabria, E. 2009. Alleviative Bleeding: Bloodletting, Menstruation and the Politics of Ignorance in a Brazilian Blood Donation Centre. Body & Society 15(2):123-144.

Warner, M. 1993. Introduction. In Fear of a Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory. (pp. vii- xxxi) Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.29173/bsuj56

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2013 Alex Christison

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/